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American Forest Management Services:

All reforestation is designed to match site capabilities and ownership objectives and is based on species, condition and quality of present timber stand as well as competing vegetation.

Cost Share Assistance - Depending on the nature and size of the ownership, government cost-share assistance may be available to cover part of the cost of reforestation. There are several state and federal programs designed to encourage and assist reforestation. Determining the best programs for the landowner’s needs and assisting the landowner in acquiring the funding is part of the service provided by AFM.

Prescribe Reforestation Method

Regeneration practices are divided into two general categories: natural methods and artificial methods. Natural Methods

  • Relies on natural sources (seed-fall from the mature trees in and around the timber sale area and sprouting from stumps left in the harvest area) to begin the next stand
  • Used most in hardwood regeneration
    • When the site of the timber sale is favorable to hardwood growth and there is a good source of high value species present on the site before the harvest
  • Relies on existing trees as the source of the next generation
  • Fieldwork and timber sale contract would reflect this type of harvesting
  • Before the harvest begins, it is important to plan for the timing of the harvest and to correct spacing seed trees to insure adequate seed-fall.
  • After harvesting is complete, a determination is made to see if the seed bed needs preparation by burning, mechanical or chemical means
  • After the first growing season following the harvest, the site is checked to determine if an applicable number of seedlings have become established.
  • It may be necessary to leave seed trees for several seasons to establish seedlings before they are removed.
  • The unsystematic nature of natural regenerations sometimes requires planting areas that are not properly regenerated or removing excess trees from areas that are over-stocked with young seedlings to maximize the growth potential of a given site.

Artificial Methods

  • Planting the desired species in the harvested area
  • Allows the use of genetically improved planting stock and systematic spacing of seedlings to insure stocking levels that maximize the growth potential of the entire stand
  • Focuses on the use of qualified, insured contractors to perform the required work in a timely manner
  • Erodability of the site, sensitive areas near the site and cost are taken into consideration when determining the best method of artificial regeneration.
  • Typically includes some or all of the following activities:
    • Chemical site preparation to kill competing species before planting
    • Mechanical site preparation to remove competing vegetation and logging debris before planting
    • Controlled burning of the site to remove logging debris, improve access by planting crews to the site, improve seedling survival and control natural regeneration
    • Bedding and fertilization of wet-natured unfertile sites
    • Disking or sub-soiling sites with extensive logging damage to soil quality
    • Planting genetically improved seedlings matched to the site location
    • Applying herbaceous weed control after planting to improve survival and increase growth
    • Applying woody-stem control after planting to release seedlings from unwanted competition.

All planted areas are checked the following fall after frost to determine if seedling survival is sufficient or if remedial activities are required.

Acreage of the regenerated sites is accurately determined with the use of aerial photographs or by Global Positioning System (GPS) mapping of the tract. Stand size and shape are transferred to management maps and updated tract records.


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